PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

gingoog---panorama-web

1.  Geographical Location

The city is located on the northeastern coast of the Province of Misamis Oriental, Region 10.  It is 122 kilometers from the regional center of Cagayan de Oro City and 74 kilometers West of Butuan City. It lies within the grid coordinates 124°57” East Longitude and 8°52” North Latitude. It is bounded on the North by Gingoog bay; on the East by the Municipality of Magsaysay and the Province of Agusan del Norte; on the West by the Municipalities of Claveria and Medina and on the South by Agusan del Sur.

2. Land Area and Classification

The city occupies an area of 769.88 square kms. (76,988 hectares)

Table I 

Existing and Proposed Land Area by Classification

 Classification

Existing (has.)

Proposed (has.)

Variance (%)

Built-up areaUtilitiesTourism siteAgricultural ProductionAgricultural Protection

Forest Production

Forest Protection

Swampland/Marshland

Mineral land/Quarry Area

1,796.97198.3093.9028,680.51823.53

11,890.00

28,500.65

69.14

4,935.00

4,712.79198.30128.4825,730.112,191.67

11,890.00

28,500.65

87.00

3,549.00

162.260.0036.83(10.28)166.13

0.00

0.00

(25.85)

(28.08)

 TOTAL

 76,988.00

 76,988.00

3. Climate and Weather Condition

The city’s climate fall under type II characterized as no distinct dry season with a very pronounced maximum rainfall that normally occur during the months of October to March.  Average temperature of the city during daytime was recorded at 28.3°Celsius with 25.7°Celsius in January as the minimum temperature and 29.7°Celsius in August as the maximum temperature. During nighttime, average temperature was low at 20.1°Celsius and high at 26°Celsius. The months of May to October are the hottest month while the months of November to April are the cold months.  Relative humidity ranges from 81 to 86 percent.

Based on PAGASA data, the hottest month is observed in May with an average temperature of 28.95ºC while the month of January is the coolest with an average temperature of 26.60 ºC.

In terms of surface wind circulation pattern, oceanographic data reveals that the coast of Gingoog is greatly influenced by the monsoon systems, namely, the Northeast Monsoon System (November to March) and the Southwest Monsoon System (June to October). Of these systems, the Northeast Monsoon greatly affects the coast and the wind-driven circulation of the bay seems to be directed towards the coast.

4. Topography and Land Features

The city’s land feature is generally flat with sloping hills of intermediate heights surrounded by mountain ranges, from Mount Balatukan extending to Mount Lumot and portion of Bukidnon province in the Southeast and Eastward to Agusan del Norte which practically insulates the city from the Northeast monsoon and typhoons.

Unique Features

The city is surrounded by mountain ranges, which serve as buffer from typhoons.  It has a big forest cover of 56.29% with a relatively cool climate (27 degrees Celsius to 32 degrees Celsius) and an evenly distributed rainfall that makes it highly conducive to production of high value crops.

5. Soil Type

There are (8) types of soil present in Gingoog City, four (4) are Clay, one (1) clay loam, hydrosoil and undifferentiated mountain soil. Among these types, undifferentiated mountain soil is the most dominant covering 50.09 percent of the total land area. Its parent material is ultra basic hills with a soil deepness ranging from shallow to moderate. It has a low PH that affects the growth of plants and thus has a very low fertility. This type is found in the hinterland barangays of Alagatan, Kalagonoy, Kalipay, Kipuntos, Hindangon, Lawaan, Lunotan, Ricorro, San Miguel, Sangalan, Tinulongan, Eureka and the forest reserves on the southern part of the city, extending towards the southeastern boundaries of Agusan del Norte, towards Claveria on the southwestern side and towards Bukidnon on the south most part.

Next to mountain soil are the 4 types of clay with clay and conglomerate as parent material. This soil type has a depth from moderate to deep and is good for plant growth, especially for penetrating plants like fruit trees. Of the four types, Camiguin clay is next to mountain soil in terms of area with 27.90 percent and also next to it in terms of location. This covers the dominant portions of Barangay: Malinao, Kalipay, Sangalan, Kianlagan, Dinawehan, Bal-ason, Mimbalagon, Lawit, Libertad, Ricorro, Banta-awan and Lunotan.

Mambajao clay occupies the third biggest area of 12.34 percent and is found on both eastern and western sides next to Camiguin clay extending towards the central portion of the city. Major portions of Barangays: Odiongan, Anakan, Punong, Minsapinit, Maribucao, Talon, Malibud, San Jose, Kianlagan, Kipuntos, Tinulongan, San Miguel, Murallon, Bakid-bakid, Mimbuntong, Pigsaluhan, and Kibuging have this soil type.

San Manuel loam has one of the five (5) smallest areas of 2.70 percent and is found on the west towards the center and 3.500 meters from Gingoog Bay going southward. This covers major portions of the coastal barangays of San Luis, Agay-ayan, Lunao, and San Juan.

Bantug clay occupies 2.58 percent and is found at the central and eastern most part fronting Gingoog Bay. This covers the dominant portions of Barangay Santiago, Pangasihan, and Talisay.

Alimodian clay loam covers 1.75 percent and is located on the eastern most part of the city bounding the municipality of Magsaysay where the communal forest is found.

Hydrosoil covers the smallest area of 0.26 percent. This falls under the miscellaneous soil type with depth from deep to very deep. This type of soil is dominantly found in the coastal portion of Pangasihan and is good for mangroves, nipa and fishpond development. 

Table II 

Soil Type Distribution

 Land Classification 

Area (in Hectares)

Percentage Distribution

Camiguin Clay 21,486.58 27.90
Mambajao Clay 9,498.92 12.34
San Miguel Loam 2,073.79 2.70
Bantug Clay 1,983.58 2.58
Alimodian Clay 1,345.77 1.75
Jasaan Clay 1,829.89 2.38
Hydrosoil 200.79 0.26
Undifferentiated mountain soils 38,568.68 50.09

Total

76,988.00 100.00

Source:  City Land Use Map, City Planning & Dev’t.

6.   Water Bodies

The city is traversed by seven (7) rivers and several tributary creeks. Odiongan river serves as the eastern boundary and joins Tagpako river before emptying into Gingoog Bay. Next to Tagpako going towards the central part is Anakan River. Serving as the western boundary is Mangiskis River. Close next to it towards the central part of Gingoog City is Gahub River. Gingoog River into which Samay River is tributary is centrally traversing the city. For Mangiskis, Gahub, and Samay, the public forest bounding the Municipality of Claveria on the west serve as their watershed. For the rest of the four rivers, the public forest on the east and southern part bounding the Provinces of Agusan Sur and Bukidnon is their watershed. The higher crest in the Province of Agusan del Norte on the east also serves as watershed for some tributary creeks. All these rivers drain into Gingoog Bay. 

7. Land Suitability

Table III 

Land Suitability and Area Covered

Area covered (has.)

Percentage Distribution

Agricultural Land:Sustainable UseDevelopment OpportunitiesNot SustainableProtection Area

19,482.86

3,985.00

266.25

823.53

25.31%

5.18%

0.35%

1.07%

Forest Land:Sustainable UseDevelopment OpportunitiesNot Sustainable

5,533.75

4,353.13

1,875.63

7.18%

5.65%

2.44%

Nipas Category

24,486.50

31.81%

Non-Nipas Category

7,399.60

9.61%

Severe Erosion Area

6,031.25

7.83%

Coastal Zone

2,293.00

2.98%

Natural Hazard/Flood Prone Area

457.50

0.59%

TOTAL

76,988.00

100.00

8. Land Use

Table IV

Land Uses and Area Covered

More than 50% of the city’s land area is suitable and in fact, are forest lands.  These are generally of higher elevation or above 18% slope.  Portions of which are now subjected to natural resource access with varied tenurial management agreements between the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the people’s organizations in the area.

About 44% of the total land area of the city is below 18% slope.  These are the alienable and disposable lands developed into agricultural and built-up uses.  These are found within the urban, urbanizing, and part of the rural area.

Built-up is concentrated in the urban barangays and barangay centers in the urbanizing and rural barangays.  Commercial establishments flourished in the city poblacion and stripping along the national highway.  Rural barangay centers, too, have their respective commercial districts surrounding the barangay site.

Agricultural areas in the urban and urbanizing barangays are indeed productive because they are maintained to produce rice and annually cultivated cash crops.  But latest observation disclosed that some areas seem non-sustainable anymore as they are actually used as built-up area.  Settlements even developed in the foreshore and swamp lands, a manifestation that housing is really a felt need of the city to the extent that agricultural lands are proposed for residential subdivision projects driven by the demand from the employees and the self-employed.

Industrial zones have already been allocated, yet industrial plants seem not attracted as of now.  Industrial plantation and full agricultural development in parts of the industrial zone might as well be encouraged for food security.

LAND USE

URBAN

URBANIZING

RURAL

TOTAL

Residential

248.014

349.049

594.530

1,191.593

Commercial

11.273

8.373

2.520

22.166

Institutional

23.013

22.782

75.220

121.015

Industrial

-

17.210

-

17.210

Agro-Industrial

1.709

11.700

82.380

95.789

Agriculture

     – Production

797.379

7,901.538

24,431.860

33,130.777

     – Protection

-

111.000

380.000

491.000

Forest

     – Production

-

-

17,675.050

17,675.050

     – Protection

-

-

23,560.404

23,560.404

Mineral Land/Quarry Sites

-

9.200

1000.00

109.200

Tourism

0.800

19.120

0.150

20.070

Utilities

0.635

0.110

-

0.745

Roads

30.054

85.350

224.740

340.144

Parks/Playgrounds

2.370

4.610

2.670

9.650

Cemetery

3.275

10.450

10.000

23.725

Landfill

-

10.000

-

10.000

Buffer Zone/Easement

5.606

15.727

229.023

250.356

Swamp/Marsh/Mangrove

11.641

91.617

-

103.258

River

38.296

144.150

251.252

433.698

TOTAL

1,174.065

8,811.986

67,001.949

76,988.000

Land Use Map

9.   Land Development and Constraints

From the city’s total land area of 76,988 hectares, 73.83 per cent is classified as alienable and disposable land based on the June 27, 1997 survey results of the Land Management Sector of the DENR, Central Office.  The remaining 26.17 percent in the southwestern portion is classified as forest land.

The existing land uses of the City are generally sustainable or devoted to their suitable uses except for 29.10 percent of the land, both within the alienable and disposable lands and forest lands which are over-used or not sustainable.

10. Political Subdivisions

The city used to have 71 barangays only.  By virtue of SP Res. No. 270 and SP Code Ordinance Series of 1986, eight more barangays were created. Of the total 79 barangays 29 are in the Urban Center and 50 are in the Rural Area.

Table V 

Area and Distance of the Barangays

URBAN BARANGAYS

AREA IN HECTARES

RURAL
 BARANGAYS

AREA IN HECTARES

DISTANCE FROM POBLACION

Barangay 1Barangay 2

Barangay 3

Barangay 4

Barangay 5

Barangay 6

Barangay 7

Barangay 8

Barangay 9

Barangay 10

Barangay 11

Barangay 12

Barangay 13

Barangay 14

Barangay 15

Barangay 16

Barangay 17

Barangay 18

Barangay 18-A

Barangay 19

Barangay 20

Barangay 21

Barangay 22

Barangay 22-A

Barangay 23

Barangay 24

Barangay 24-A

Barangay 25

Barangay 26

1.9771.874

2.111

1.813

1.639

1.729

1.727

2.446

1.838

1.894

1.899

1.963

2.157

2.373

1.915

4.059

11.719

5.261

35.488

128.527

124.692

29.269

8.909

13.195

49.373

14.622

256.042

63.434

400.120

Agay-ayanAlagatan

Anakan

Bagubad

Bakid-bakid

Bal-ason

Banta-awan

Binakalan

Capitulangan

Daan Lungsod

Dinawehan

Eureka

Hindangon

Kalagonoy

Kalipay

Kamanikan

Kianlagan

Kibuging

Kipuntos

Lawaan

Lawit

Libertad

Libon

Lunao

Lunotan

Malibud

Malinao

Maribucao

Mimbalagon

Mimbunga

Mimbuntong

Minsapinit

Murallon

Odiongan

Pangasihan

Pigsaluhan

Punong

Ricorro

Samay

San Jose

San Juan

San Luis

San Miguel

Sangalan

Santiago

Tagpako

Talisay

Talon

Tinabalan

Tinulongan

998.612600.000

372.792

657.000

1,123.000

1,380.000

1,200.000

347.382

420.000

156.179

2,133.442

16,566.000

12,363.000

729.000

1,440.000

525.000

575.000

452.110

324.119

318.515

348.000

617.000

529.000

679.334

4,963.000

823.293

2,300.000

578.869

1,495.818

835.189

815.000

779.067

630.000

798.000

663.479

1,800.000

499.881

577.000

778.000

560.000

2,811.184

807.537

819.098

2,823.000

404.988

996.000

620.000

1,108.047

550.000

1,123.000

7.6613.021

8.54

14.50

6.05

20.92

18.02

8.0

10.0

5.59

23.22

37.00

23.14

11.68

25.00

16.00

21.07

16.37

10.50

21.14

13.64

18.64

12.14

5.71

18.00

15.00

19.17

13.50

17.00

13.64

11.50

10.50

3.40

10.48

13.50

14.16

6.40

11.52

7.00

20.66

1.71

11.67

7.00

37.00

3.14

13.30

14.60

15.00

14.50

8.00

 

1,174.065

 

75,813.935

 

Total Area

76,988.000